The chief leader of this conspiracy was Th. Venner, a wine-cooper. On January 6, 1661, after the Restoration, and when the restored monarchy had avenged itself on the “regicides” with exquisite cruelty, Venner, with a handful of equally daring followers, whom he had incited by his speeches, attempted a new rising for the “Kingdom of Christ”. They were at most some sixty men, but they threw the whole city into a turmoil. Before the superior numbers of the citizen guards and soldiers they fled into a wood situated in the north of London, between Highgate and Hampstead, but returned to London on January 9th, this time numbering thirty-one men only, who were in a completely frenzied state of mind. They “have routed all the train bands that they met with, put the King’s life-guards to the run, killed about twenty men, broke through the city gates twice; and all this in the daytime, when all the city was in arms.” Thus Pepys, in his Diary (January 10, 1661). Pepys adds, after having stated their number: “We did believe them to be at least 500. A thing that never was heard of, that so few men should dare and do so much mischief. They were finally surrounded on all sides, but broke through into a house, which they defended for some time against thousands. After half of them had fallen, the remainder were taken by force (none of them surrendering voluntarily), only to die on the gallows, Venner being among the number. Venner and a certain Pritchard were drawn and quartered and their meeting-house was pulled down.